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In other videos. Weve already talked about how classical greece has had an immeasurable immeasurable impact not just on western civilization. But on civilization as a whole in order.
Understand the period that we call classical. Greece. Its valuable to place it in context on a timeline.
So i have significant conflicts or events that happened to the greek world on this timeline. Especially in the fifth and fourth centuries bce in the beginning of the fifth century bce you have the greco persian wars. Where the greek city states are able to fend off attack from the great persian empire and then they go on the offensive.
But as we exit the fifth century bce. The city states start fighting amongst themselves you have athens leading the delian league in a fight against sparta and their allies. Which significantly weakens.
The city states it ends with athens losing. But all of the city states have been weakened and it leaves them open to be conquered by the macedonians in particular phillip of macedonia and then his son. Alexander.
The great is able to not just keep control of greece of the city states. But conquer egypt and persia and get all the way to modern day afghanistan and pakistan. But after his death you then have his successors and greece falls under the antigonid dynasty.
But eventually as we get into the second and first century bce. It goes under roman control and weve talked about this classical period. All of the various contributions.
Weve talked about the contributions in philosophy from people like socrates and socratess student plato and platos student aristotle. But there were also significant contributions in mathematics you have pythagoras who actually predates. These philosophers and hes most famous especially to many of us for his pythagorean theorem and a lot of mathematics and the foundations of a lot of geometry.
But he and his followers they were actually creating something of a mysticism of a religion around mathematics and even a philosophy that would later influence some of the other philosophers that we talk about especially this ideal of ideal platonic forms. You can imagine if youre studying perfect right triangles. Theres no such thing as a perfect right triangle in the universe.
These are ideas that we use in geometry and other things in the universe are really just approximations of these. But to appreciate the philosophical side of pythagoras here are some quotes from him or quotes ascribed to him there is geometry in the humming of the strings. There is music in the spacing of the spheres reason is immortal.
All else mortal and you see even in the sixth century bce this thread of greek thinking putting reason at a very high level not just trying to explain everything with pure mysticism. Although pythagoras definitely was and pythagoreanism was definitely about mysticism. But it was mysticism that at the core had mathematics and geometry.
But continuing on with significant mathematical contributions from ancient greece. We have euclid we dont know all of the exact details of his birth and his death. But he is the father of modern geometry and as you can see in this map.
Here. He didnt live in what we call. Greece proper today.
He lived in alexandria. A city established by alexander. The great and this is during the hellenistic period.
Where all of the territory or most of the territory that had been conquered by alexander. The great was still ruled by his successors egypt was ruled by ptolemy establishing the ptolemaic dynasty. In the time of euclid.
And euclid. Lived in that great center of learning and the arts alexandria. Which even exists today and he is most famous for his elements.
This is a much later printing of his elements of euclids eeements. But you would be amazed how much of modern geometry. Has been described by euclid.
Even your geometry. Textbook can trace. It back directly to euclids elements.
Abraham lincoln. Famously learned every proof in euclids elements in order to fine tune. His mind.
So you can really view euclid as the father of geometry. But thats not all there are many other contributors in philosophy and math. And this is just once again a sample of all of the folks who contributed on the side of philosophy.
You have xenophon who was another one of socrates students in addition to plato and in fact. The life of socrates. We learn from the writings of plato and xenophon xenophon.
Was also a historian who gave us some accounts of the later peloponnesian war. You have the famous cynics antisthenes and his student diogenes diogenes famous for living in a barrel in athens. And somewhat insulting alexander.
The great but these cynics which the word is derived from being dog like these are people who were philosophers who gave up the trappings of materialism and caring. Frankly what other people thought as we go a little bit out of our timeline. Right over.
Here. You have archimedes one of the greatest mathematicians and scientists of all time. But you also have contributions in the arts.
Some of the most famous playwrights of the ancient time aeschylus sophocles euripides aristophanes. We might remember as being a bit of a thorn in the side of socrates. He wrote about socrates.
But it was more of a parody you have contributions in medicine. The famous hippocrates. The hippocratic oath still has an influence on modern medicine you have some of the earliest what we could say historians that we know of herodotus famously giving us the accounts.
We have of the greco persian wars a lot of what we even know about the ancient persian empire. You have thucydides who gives us accounts of the peloponnesian war along with xenophon and so when you see this density of arts sciences learning in one place a lot of this was centered in athens. It makes you wonder what was going on at that time and historians do call the period from when the athenians were able to fend off the persians all the way until the end of the peloponnesian war as the golden age of athens.
And for good reason look at this flourishing of the arts and the sciences. That developed during that period. You might wonder what was happening in terms of government and government of this period might be one of the longest lasting influences as we exit the sixth century bce in 507 you have greek democracy taking root in athens.
And in fact. The word democracy is a greek word government by the people and shortly after that during the golden age of athens. You start having leadership by pericles.
He was an orator. He was a statesman. He was a general in this period.
Right over here that i have in orange often known as the age of pericles. He helped athens invest significantly in the arts and in architecture. Some of the most iconic structures.
We now associate with greece or ancient greece were built during his time they were promoted by him here. You have a picture of the acropolis. Which is this rock outcropping.
Which still exists in athens. As it likely looked during the time of pericles during the golden age of athens. And you can see here in particular.
The most famous structure. The parthenon. A lot of which still stands today was constructed under the rule of pericles as i mentioned the greek city states get conquered by the macedonians.
But after the death of alexander. The great falls under the control of the antigonid dynasty. But eventually as we get into the second century bce off of this timeline.
It comes under roman control becomes part of the roman empire. But the roman empire is itself significantly influenced by greek culture greek mathematics. Greek architecture.
Greek philosophy and in a lot of ways. The romans end up becoming the caretakers of much of this culture that we talk about in this video. And once you have the decline of the roman empire.
Especially. The western roman empire and europe enters into the middle ages. You have the islamic world.
That acts as a bit of a bridge of this greek culture into the european renaissance and eventually the enlightenment and so we can trace even our modern views of science and philosophy all the way back to these greeks and so ill leave you with this quote from the roman poet horace. Who wrote this around the first century bce captive. Greece took captive her fierce conqueror and instilled her arts in rustic latium or laecium.
And so what hes saying is even though rome had conquered. Greece. Greeces culture took captive her conqueror took captive.
The roman culture instilled. Greeces arts in the rustic latin world. .
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