who is responsible for decisions about security strategy? This is a topic that many people are looking for. passionistsisters.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, passionistsisters.org would like to introduce to you What is a National Security Strategy and Why Have One? – Stephen Mariano. Following along are instructions in the video below:
You everyone and good morning. Its a pleasure to be back with the ac. Ac.
Ss colleagues all old and new so welcome and welcome to all of you this morning. Id like to try and do five things that might seem like a lot. But i promise not to go on too long.
The first is to talk about a national security strategy. And what that is the second would be to talk about and elaborate on what assisi just talked about rationales for a national security strategy and reasons. Why a country might want a national security strategy written down and then third talk about some reasons.
Why a country may not want a national security strategy. Particularly not one written down and then discuss as time allows the means of national security strategy. The resources that we were just briefly introduced to and then leave fifth leave plenty of time for questions.
And answers okay. So what is national security strategy. So what we teach at the national war college for national security strategy is a strategy thats whole of government not a military strategy.
Whole of government at the highest level. Something that the head of state signs and promulgates that looks at context international context. Regional context.
Domestic context determines. Whats in a nations best interests. Then sets objectives to advance those interests or to protect them.
And then finds creative ways to use the means at the disposal of the nation. Or if the means arent available to generate the means to generate the resources to be able to implement the strategy at a later date. A national security strategy process includes weighing the costs and risks of a selected course of action and continually scanning the environment for changes in the environment.
That might disrupt your strategy. Theres lots of variations on this definition. But its an ends ways and mean structure.
That is widely accepted in the national security community. Although lots of people put different applications or modifications to it so were not talking about a military strategy. Were not talking about economic development strategy.
Were talking about not talking about a negotiation strategy. Were not talking about environmental strategy. Were talking about a strategy that takes all of that into account somehow we talk about inward facing strategies and outward facing strategies to get to this point about resourcing so an outward facing strategy might be something that looks from your country out to its neighbors or the international environment and an inward.
Facing strategy is focused on your own country and whats happening domestically and frequently on the ability to generate resources to support that outward facing strategy. Sometimes we call them means producing strategies resource. Producing strategies and sometimes.
We call them. Means expending. Or consuming strategies.
So as as he said. Every strategy must have implementation in mind at some point. And this is a these are a few ways to think about it okay so rationale for strategies.
So weve already heard some some points about to effect change break with the past yes. I agree with those. But id like to elaborate on a few could be a change in the international environment could be a change in the regional environment could be a change in the domestic environment could be a change in the individual leader.
These are all those those environmental changes.
But theres some other rationales. A nation might want to produce a strategy to provide a shared vision of the future to provide unity of effort for a nation and also to prioritize prioritize effort to prioritize resources. You might a nation might want a strategy to prevent another nation from achieving their goals and objectives.
You might want to keep a good thing. Going you might want to keep a regime in place. You might want to give hope or confidence or send a message with your strategy.
You might want to have a strategy to gain those resources. I mentioned about i mentioned or to allocate resources or to manage risk or to gain entry into a system or to modify a system or to tear down a system. So i can think of examples maybe in the qat.
We can talk about some examples of all those strategies or it might be a combination and im always looking for good examples so hopefully in the qa. You can give me some examples of those next quickly. Why might a nation not want a strategy well secrecy you may not want to tell the opponent.
What youre doing you dont want to give them the playbook. It makes it easier to defend against perhaps you might want to keep competitors not necessarily enemies. But you might want to keep competitors at a disadvantage.
So you may not want a strategy. If youve got one in your mind you may not want it written down you may not want a strategy because it could constrain you if you tell everyone this is what im going to do and you kind of have to do it or you lose credibility as the senior strategist. Having a strategy written down.
Might also forego opportunities that a seest was talking about you might not want a strategy in case public opinion. Didnt support your strategy or in case. It violates international law or its unsuccessful.
Then you can never be accused of not having succeeded in your strategy. And you may not want a strategy. Because it allows you to as a leader to have a force of your personality.
The cult of your personality. It puts you in charge in a very evident way that makes you as the leader in charge. And as the decision maker so just a few reasons.
Why you may not want a strategy. So now just a few words on means or resources. Now we talk about means in in basically three ways we talk about means in terms of institutions in terms of people and in terms of things and i like to refer to them as things you can touch tangible tangible things so we have an acronym called dime di m e have many of you hopefully have heard of it it stands for diplomacy.
Information. Military and economic. We call these the instruments of power.
So in the diplomatic side of course. We have ministry of foreign affairs either our state department traditional institutions. Theres also international organisations like the united nations regional organizations like the african union sub regional organizations like the regional economic communities ecowas or sadek or for all the sub regions.
So institutions. But theres also ambassadors and special envoys and and unexpected people like bono can be a diplomat treaties and agreements and communicates resolutions conference summits cables note verbal the marshes these are all diplomatic tools these are all diplomatic means that can be wielded in different ways well saudi thats the first one on the eye for information. We think of ministries of information.
Some of us have those in our. Countries the united states used to have a us. Information agency.
No longer. But theres also universities and think tanks that promulgate information. The intelligence communities deal in information and in people theyre spokespersons and reporters and analysts and in terms of things theres newspapers and televisions and radio broadcasts and iphones and parenthetically i just read fascinating report that we still call this a phone.
But did you know that the people the sixth most use purpose of this is talking on the phone.
The the number one uses for texting number two is a camera three we use it to play mute music. We use it for a map. And we use it to get on the internet and maybe shop.
But but we still call it a phone so its a means tweets satellites intelligence ideas symbols logos. We have the africa center logo these are all informational means some of these symbols are quite benign and positive. But theres also symbols you can probably think of that the voc negative and very powerful images and passions on the military side similarly.
We have ministries of defense and ministries of interior. We have institutions similarly. We have regional organizations and that manage military we have planes and ships and tanks and troops and commanders generals and admirals.
We have police happy to see police in the audience. Today law enforcement paramilitary. Oh.
But also things like radios and batteries and clothes. And think about clothes can be many of these things can be used in multiple ways. So when we talk about means.
We teach means are value neutral. Theyre just things what you do with them how you put them in motion. Whether you give them or you take them away are important in your strategy development process on the economic side of course again.
We have government ministry. But we have the world bank and we have the african development bank. And again.
The regional economic communities and money and grants and loans. Scholarships aid in terms of wheat or corn or vaccines. We have stock markets.
Exchanges. Cooperatives sanctions again economic means so theres lots of things lots of means lots of resources at a countrys disposal. The art form is how you assemble them over time to achieve those objectives that you set out for yourself so just about done assis talked about different types of security in a contemporary african environment.
Absolutely i couldnt agree more traditional state security is is one model of security human security is another environmental security is another regime security. Another all very valid points. And a strategy.
That is a national security strategy should it coorporate and accommodate all those perspectives. Ill just think ill end there. With one note that was made earlier about who does a servant leadership.
Who does this whos responsible for strategy development. Well everyone is ideally. Its also a reflection.
Some of the problems the cs was talking about a reflection of democracy and increased democratization in strategy development. Some of those accountability issues that we were talking about you dont have those in dictatorships. So theres a strategy process in a democracy that looks a bit different than it might in a country that has a strong leader or a dictatorship.
But one of the models for positive strategy development. We talk about is servant leadership. Its building consensus knowing the nation you serve knowing.
The interests that your nation is trying to accomplish and putting your own interests beneath that of the nation. So with that i think id like to conclude. And leave plenty of time for questions.
And answers. Thank you very much applause. .
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